Professional standards, from the Accreditation Council on Pharmacy Education (ACPE), the Center for the Advancement of Pharmaceutical Education (CAPE) Outcomes and the North American Pharmacy Licensure Examination (NAPLEX) Blueprint, are the basis of the School of Pharmacy Program Outcomes. The program’s curricular outcomes are defined at a more general level by the Global Program Learning Outcomes, and more specifically as the Professional Student Outcomes.
The nine Global Program Learning Outcomes (GPLO) are divided across three domains: Biomedical Sciences; Clinical Pharmacy Practice; and Social, Behavioral and Administrative Pharmacy.
||Describe the structure and function of human biological systems and explain interventions that modify normal and abnormal processes that treat diseases and promote health and wellness.
||Apply principles of pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, and pharmaceutics into making rational drug therapy selections.
||Apply pharmacogenomics, cell based therapies and associated biomarkers, diagnostics, and devices to provide optimized individual therapy.
||Clinical Pharmacy Practice
||Communicate and collaborate with prescribers, patients, caregivers, and other involved health care providers to develop and implement populations-specific, evidence-based disease management program and protocols based on medication use criteria and risk reduction strategies.
||Assess individual patient parameters and design or modify the drug dosage regimen to optimize patient outcomes.
||Use evidence-based medicine, literature evaluation, drug information, information technology, and economic principles to optimize patient therapy.
||Social, Behavioral and Administrative Pharmacy
||Demonstrate professionalism and leadership through effective communication with peers, patients, caregivers, and inter-professional health care team members.
||Explain the US Healthcare System and emerging healthcare issues, use this knowledge to provide safe and efficient management of healthcare resources.
||Apply principles, attitudes, and skills in public health and epidemiology to prevention of disease, health promotion, and population health management.
The Professional Student Outcomes (PSO), which are defined as the academic knowledge, skills and attitudes that a pharmacy graduate should possess, are mapped to the GPLOs. Achievement of PSOs can therefore be used to demonstrate achievement of the GPLOSs. PSOs are mapped to the syllabi to be sure that all outcomes are adequately covered in the professional curriculum. PSOs are assessed through activities in courses and modules.
Ability Based Outcomes (ABO) are based on the performance of specific skills demonstrated in the practice environment. PERFORM-I are ABOs used for the Introductory Professional Practice Experience (IPPE) rotations, and the PERFORM-A are ABOs used for the Advanced Professional Practice Experience (APPE) rotations. ABOs are also mapped to the PSOs. Thus, achievement of the ABOs can be linked directly to the achievement of the PSOs.
The effectiveness of the curriculum is documented through the assessment of the student’s ability to successfully demonstrate the PSOs. PSOs are directly assessed in didactic courses. PSOs are indirectly assessed using the ABOs (PERFORM I and PERFORM A) in the experiential courses.
The KGI School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences (SPHS) will administer the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA), a validated comprehensive exam, in January of each didactic (P-1 through P-3) year of the program. Aggregate results will be analyzed and shared with the faculty. Individual results will be shared with the students through their respective mentors to identify areas needing improvement.
Licensure Examination Success Rate
Graduates complete the NAPLEX (North American Pharmacy Licensure Examination) regardless of which state is considered for application for licensure. In addition, those applying in California for licensure must complete the CPJE (California Practice-standards and Jurisprudence Exam). Those applying in other states for licensure must complete the specific MPJE (Multi-state Pharmacy Jurisprudence Exam). The aggregate results (pass-fail with some information related to exam areas) of these exams are available to the School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences on a quarterly basis after the examination. With proper candidate release forms completed, a more thorough breakdown by individual is available for the NAPLEX. The aggregate information will be shared with the faculty.
Table 1: Student Retention: Academic Year 2016-2017
|Retention by Class
||Enrollment after first year
||First Year Retention Rate (%)
||Overall Retention (%)
Direct Summative Assessment Data
All core SPHS courses are required to have at least one Course-Embedded Assessment (CEA), which is designed to assess student learning and achievement of a specific professional student outcome. Instructor feedback from CEA is utilized in guiding curricular development. For AY 2016-2017, across all levels, 96% of students were able to demonstrate competency on the first attempt.
Data from ExamSoft indicate that 90% of students have scored at least 70% or higher on summative assessments and as a result, have progressed to the next academic level.
Indirect Assessment (Surveys)
Course and Instructor Evaluations
SPHS administers the Course Evaluations for each required course and Instructor Evaluations for any instructor who teaches more than 7 contact hours. The students indicate their agreement on a scale from 1 to 5, students indicated the following regarding evaluations for FY2017:
SPHS administers the Student Satisfaction Survey every Spring semester for all class levels. The table below contains excerpted items regarding learning from the survey. On a scale from 1 to 4, students indicated the following regarding learning items on the 2016-2017 survey:
Table 2: Student Satisfaction Survey 2016-17, Student Learning Items
|The sequence of courses was appropriate to build my knowledge and skills.
|The flipped classroom met my learning needs.
|The in-class activities met my learning needs.
|Team placement helped facilitate my learning.
|Overall, the assessment/team assessment/reassessment/extended learning process is a good process for demonstrating my understanding of the material.
Source: E*Value, Student Satisfaction Survey, 2016-17.
Personal and Professional Development
A recent qualitative analysis of 67 P3 year reflections identified the top five areas of personal development which included: self-confidence (43.3%), work-life balance (34.3%), continuous self-reflection, improvement, or awareness (32.8%), time management skills (28.4%), and “stepping out of one’s comfort zone” (23.9%). Additionally, the following top five areas of professional development included: leadership skills (40.3%), teamwork skills (32.8%), communication skills (25.4%), active involvement in professional organizations (22.3%), and presentation skills (19.4%). Approximately 24% of the students attributed their personal and/or professional growth to the Professional Development Series, which reaffirms the importance and continued need for this unique longitudinal course.
PharmD Curriculum Map