Mass and Momentum transport: Laminar and turbulent boundary layer flow in pipes and simple geometries. Viscometers. Flow of non-Newtonian fluids. Velocity profile and pressure drops in pipes. Definition of generalized Reynolds number and friction factor for Newtonian and non-Newtonian flow. Application to mass transfers. Mixing and non-Newtonian flow in mechanically agitated vessels, bubble columns and air-lifts bioreactors. Power number and Reynolds number definitions and Power curves for mixing bioreactors. Scale-up and scale-down considerations. Flow past spherical and non-spherical particles. Steady and unsteady-state free and hindered settling. Flow through packed beds, capillary model. Definitions of porosity, permeability and tortuosity. Definition of flow, Carman-Kozeny, Burke-Plummer and Ergun equations. Dimensionless form of Ergun equation. Flow through filter cakes, compressible filter cakes and filter cloth resistance, constant rate and constant pressure filtration equations. Equations of flow through centrifuges, settling time and sigma factor calculations. Equations of centrifugal flow for two immiscible liquid Flow through Flow through fluidized beds, minimum fluidization velocity. Worked out examples. Convective mass transfer processes, the penetration and surface renewal theories, mass transfer coefficients, correlations. Simple mass, heat and momentum analogies.
MEng program students only